Virtual communities can be defined as follow: communication is their core and definitive activity; membership is voluntary and easily revocable; and the basis of relationships is shared personal interest rather than obligation. (...) Online sociality is said to reject hierarchy, creating a sort of permanent  autonomous zone of democratic, communication and production. In the realms of independantly produced media, knowledge and code, participatory cooperation is the rule. Pyramidal structures and proprietary practices are being inexorably challenged by a swarming multitude of self organised agents.

Mathieu O'neil, Cyberchief

Les hiérarchies bureaucratiques (fondées sur l'écriture statique), les monarchies médiatiques (surfant sur la télévision et le système des médias) et les réseaux internationaux de l'économie (utilisant le téléphone et les technologies du temps réel) ne mobilisent et ne coordonnent que très partiellement les intelligences, les expériences, les savoir-faire, les sagesses et les imaginations des êtres humains. C'est pourquoi l'invention de nouveaux procédés de pensée et de négociation qui puissent faire émerger de véritables intelligences collectives se pose avec une urgence particulière.

Pierre Lévy, L'intelligence collective

A large group of fan can do what even the most committed single fan cannot accumulate, retain, and continually recirculate unprecedented amount of relevant information... participants collaboratively provide all with the ressources to get more story from the material, enhancing many members' soap readings and pleasures.

Henry Jenkins, Fans, Bloggers and Gamers

Dans un collectif intelligent, la communauté se donne explicitement pour objectif la négociation permanente de l'ordre des choses, de son langage, du rôle de chacun, le découpage et la définition de ses objets, la réinterprétation de sa mémoire. Rien n'est figé, mais ce n'est pas pour autant le désordre ou le relativisme absolu, car les actes sont coordonnés et évalués en temps réel selon un grand nombre de critères eux-mêmes constamment réévalués en contexte.

Pierre Lévy, L’intelligence collective

Lévy draws a productive distinction between organic social group (families, clan, tribes), organized social groups (nations, institutions, religions, corporations), and self-organized social groups (such as the virtual communities of the Web). He links the emergence of the new knowledge space to the breakdown of geographic constraints on communication, of the declining loyalty of individuals to organized groups, and of the diminished power of nation-states to command the exclusive loyalty of their citizens. The new knowledge communities will be voluntary, temporary, and tactical affiliations, defined through common intellectual enterprises and emotional investments. Members may shift from one community to another as their interests and needs change, and they may belong to more than one community at the same time. Yet, they are held together through the mutual production and reciprocal exchange of knowledge.

Henry Jenkins, Fans, Bloggers and Gamers

...“collective intelligence” as an “achievable utopia”—not something that grows inevitably from the new configuration of technologies but rather something we must work toward and fight to achieve. Fandom is one of those spaces where people are learning how to live and collaborate within a knowledge community. (...) Rejecting technological or economic determinism, Levy sees contemporary society as caught in a transitional moment, the outcome of which is still unknown, but which has enormous potentials for transforming existing structures of knowledge and power.

Henry Jenkins, Fans, Bloggers and Gamers

On passe du cogito cartésien au cogitamus. Loin de fusionner les intelligences individuelles dans une sorte d'instinc magma, l'intelligence collective est un processus de croissance, de différenciation et de relance des singularités.

Pierre Lévy, L'intelligence collective